Biomass energy is starting to accelerate
There is such a substance that is priceless in the coat of garbage; every year people spend a lot of money to solve the problem of their storage and processing, but in fact it can create huge wealth. Having such a raw material seems to be all the same, but it can touch the foundation stone of human life. With such a kind of energy, it is both environmentally friendly and low carbon. It seems to be full of possibilities. It is often said that twenty-first Century is the century of biology. Yes, the biomass is starting to accelerate. Are fossil fuels ready to accept the challenge?
"When the harvest is poor, the peasants are unhappy. When the harvest comes, the peasants and the government are unhappy together." A jest of words reveals the pain of grain storage in China. Every year our country spends a lot of money on grain storage. Only one way to consume these grains and extract their surplus value is to develop fuel ethanol.
Fuel ethanol has great environmental advantages and high octane number. If used to blend gasoline, the octane number of gasoline can be increased, and the concentration of olefin and aromatics contaminated components can be reduced. Yue Guojun introduced that refinery usually uses MTBE (methyl tert butyl ether) as the regulator of gasoline octane number, but ether products can not be metabolize by human beings, which is harmful to health. And MTBE itself is a high energy consumption product, the production of 1 tons of MTBE carbon dioxide emissions equivalent is 1.77 times the production of 1 tons of renormalization gasoline, can not meet the development of low-carbon society. Fuel ethanol is currently the best oxygenation compound to replace MTBE, and it is also the only solution to the problem of gasoline octane shortage.
In 2014, the apparent consumption of gasoline in our country had reached 1 million tons. Considering the increase in the number of new energy vehicles such as natural gas and electric vehicles, gasoline consumption will slow down in the next few years. On an annual increase of 7%, 1.5 billion tons of gasoline will be consumed in 2020. If the gasoline is added to fuel ethanol in proportion to 10%, it needs 15 million tons of fuel ethanol, an output value of about 150 billion yuan, and a reduction of 2400 million tons of imported crude oil, and the highest dependence on foreign oil can be reduced to up to 57.8%.
In fact, fuel ethanol is only a silhouette of biomass energy. The "opening up" of biomass energy is reflected in the fact that it can turn all kinds of agricultural and forestry wastes into waste.
The data show that the annual yield of China's straw theory is up to 9 million tons, about 5.8 million tons of agricultural products processing byproducts, 1.1 million tons of "three leftover" in forestry, and about about 3000000000 tons of livestock and poultry excrement. The value of 1 tons of straw is equivalent to 0.5 tons of standard coal. If 50% of the straw is used as fuel, it equals to 40 million tons of crude oil and 3 billion 300 million cubic meters of natural gas per year.
In addition to grain and agricultural and forestry waste, there is a very worthy biological resource, microorganism. The biggest highlight of microbial utilization is that gene manipulation can be used to maximize its use. At present, there is an urgent need to develop a new generation of bio manufacturing technology, so that bio based materials can compete with petroleum based materials at cost.
What is the so-called "new generation of bio manufacturing technology"? How is the biological manufacturing process that uses microbes as reactants to solve the shortcomings of the biological process by manipulating the genes of microbes. For example, if the conversion rate is low, the hemoglobin cells can be allocated to improve the utilization of oxygen, thereby reducing energy consumption and improving conversion rate. For example, the process of biological manufacturing often consumes a lot of fresh water. This can be done by screening a halophilic bacterium so that seawater can be used instead of fresh water to react. If the reaction process is slow, it usually takes several days or weeks. It can change the way of bacterial splitting through gene manipulation and accelerate the reaction process.
In short, microbes are like a piece of rubber paste, and can be molded into it if they need it. At present, PHA manufacturing technology has been successfully tested. Its industrial chain covers environmental plastics, degradable agricultural films, textiles, feed additives, 3D printing materials, medical implants and so on. Many fields are overlapped with the petrochemical industry.
Biological energy has a bright future, but like every industry, biological energy has bottlenecks in its technology, policy, cost and other aspects. The comprehensive utilization of agricultural and forestry wastes in China is still far from the international level in terms of research depth, technology maturity, system integration and industrial scale.
The technical problem of developing biomass energy is how to achieve biomass deoxygenation efficiently and economically. According to the introduction, traditional fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, are mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen, while biomass is mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The scientific problem of developing biomass energy is to find out the path and method of extracting oxygen elements. In the process of deoxidation of biomass, hydrogen and oxygen first combine, resulting in less scarce hydrogen. This is a technical constraint problem.
In view of the low economic value of the product, the reporter understands that the main use of biomass is burning electricity, gasification and fermentation, which can not compete with traditional fossil fuels economically. In this regard, Xiao Rui said that we should combine the characteristics of biomass and take the road of high value utilization. For example, the preparation of polyol ether, especially vanillin, Ding Xiangquan and so on, can be widely used in cosmetics, perfume and other fashion products, with high added value.
The prospect of biomass is in high value-added products, not just as burning energy. "Biomass and other renewable energy sources cannot be compared to electricity generation." The value of biomass is indispensable to development